While there are as many instructional design theories and models, top instructional designers do not adhere to any one of them, but instead choose the model that best suits the specifics of a course’s audience and content. In this post, I will briefly cover some of the most popular models that instructional designers use.
ADDIE is the classic model. ADDIE stands for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. In the Analysis phase, instructional designers clarify problems, define goals and objectives, and collect necessary data. In the Design phase, they write objectives, and create the structure and sequencing of the course. At the end of this phase, they will have a blueprint for the course and its delivery methods. In the Development phase, instructional designers bring their design to life by assembling all the course elements into a compelling eLearning module. Just like the name suggest, in the Implementation phase, the course is delivered to its audience. And, finally, in the Evaluation phase, the effectiveness of the course is assessed by measuring the level of audience’s learning and retention. Although Evaluation is the last stage in ADDIE, it should actually be performed throughout the design process.
The ASSURE model is based on Gagné’s Nine Events of Instruction. It assumes that the course design uses different types of media and is especially useful for designing eLearning materials. ASSURE stands for: Analyzing Learners, Stating Objectives, Select Media and Materials, Utilizing Media and Materials, Requiring Learner Participation, and Evaluating and Revising the course.
3. Rapid ISD Model
The Accelerated Learning Rapid Instructional Design (RID) Model is ideal for those who work with tight deadlines, a limited budget, and constantly changing content. This model is all about accelerated learning design strategies and shortcuts. There are four phases in the RID model. They are: Preparation, Presentation, Practice, and Performance
4. The Four-Door (4D) ELearning Model
The Four-Door (4D) ELearning Model developed by Thiagi is another eLearning model that allows professionals to develop eLearning courses cheaply and rapidly while addressing different types of learners. According to this model, learners have full control of course navigation. The four doors in this model are the Library, Café, Playground, and Evaluation Center. However, you can change these names depending on the training needs. Learners can enter any of the doors they want based on their personal preference, background knowledge, and experience.
My book Instructional Design for ELearning (yourelearningworld.com/books) discusses each of the aforementioned models in detail. It also covers other ISD models that have not been addressed in this post.